The following section includes a lesson plan written by a fourh-year teacher education student in an undergraduate instructional design course ( figure 4.12 ). The lesson was pulled from a four-lesson until that wasrequired at the end of the  chouse. Lesson two through four will featured in chapter 8 on until development. The next that follows this example describes and comments on what the student designed.

Web Your Appetite : Discovering interaction


Teacher candidate           : Whithey Hatcher

School                                   : county H.S.                                                                                                                           Grade level                     : Tenth-grade Honors Science                                                                                             Date                                                : two periods

Cooperating teacher      : ( name withheld)


Subject-until                      : changing ecosystems

Time estimate                   : two 50- minute periods

Learning focus                   : interaction among organisms



Individual: copies of computerized presentation file and printout, section 5.1 from the textbook, activity summation questions.

Group : organism index card, string, “ web your appetite” activity

Objectives : students will be able to:

  1. Identify how energy flows through a system.
  2. Show interaction among organisms within a food chain and a food web, and analyze those interaction.

State standards:

  • Engage in active inquiries, investigations and hands-on activities for a minimum of 50 percent of the instructional time.
  • Use computers and other electronic technologies.

Teaching and assessment overview:

  • This lesson makes use of direct instruction, cooperative learning, and discuss. The coputer-based presentation is a from of direct instruction, and the activity is a from cooperative learning.
  • Asking questions at end of presentation, individual summation questions, and questions at the end of section 5.1.



Introduction or opening activity or review

  • Teacher outlines main ideas of section 5.1

Instruction / activities

  • Computer-based presentation on the interactions among organisms. Ask the students for examples of organisms that fit the vocabulary word (15 min.)
  • “ web your appetite” group activity (35 min.)
  • Summation questions from the activity (20 min.)
  • Questions at the end of section 5.1 in the book ( 15 min.)
  • Discuss answers to both sets of questions ( 15 min.)

Media, material, or technology used

  • Computer and video projector

Teacher inquiry procedures

  • Record in jurnal reflective observations on this lesson

Closure : review, assignments

  • Review the summation questions and section 5.1 question. Ask students for any questions.


Modification or reteach strategies :

If the students do not understand the activity or answer the wuestion with 100 percent accuracy. Then go back over the material they seem to be having trouble with.


Identifying school, grade level, and date helps the teacher organize the lessons for a portfolio on future use.


Subject and Student Learning

This lesson in the first of a four-lesson until for tenth-grade science honors students, “changing ecosystems.” The teacher has planned two continuous fifty-minute periods for this lesson, and the purpose for the lesson is “interactions among organisms.”



The materials list was divided in terms of materials for individual students and groups.


The first objective has students learning to identify how energy flows through a system. The second objective asks students to show and analyze interactions. Lessons frequently include student activity and assessment in the objective statement. A third objective could be added to this lesson, such as assessing student behavior in cooperative groups. Cooperative behavior and performance could join the understanding of energy flow in organisms as another aspect to the “content” and a matching learning objective included.


The teacher identifies direct instruction, cooperative learning, and discussion as the teaching strategies. She sees the presentation as a variation of direct instruction. If you look at the bulleted list under instruction, you will see that the teacher has provided suggestion could integrate other teaching approaches . for example, a computer-based presentation does not have to be solely new material but can also include student activity in the from of responses to teacher questions, simulations, or video clips embedded within the presentation that are designed to provide examples. Also, hyperlinks within the presentation can connect to other sources, such as live web chats with experts. These suggestion would upgrade this low-level use of instructional technology from teacher directed to student centered. Another factor in this decision in the time available for this lesson and the scope of activities.. direct instruction provides time efficiency in this lesson and allows more time for the intended activity. A higher level of instructional technology activity would be most likely the major activity in the lesson.

Cooperative groups are used for the ”web your appetite” the teacher developed separate activity sheets on which she included much of the detail for its implementation. In other words, she created in her until a set of lesson plans and a set of activities. A benefit to this approach is that if the teacher posted her lesson plans to the web, she could link from the lesson plan web page to the activity web page.

Assessment included the group activity and summation questions, text questions, and closure discussion. The formative evaluation of student performance is addressed by student activity-in this case, the demonstration of energy flow and analysis of this flow.


Introduction Procedures

The lesson is introduced with an outline of section 5.1 of the textbook. The outcome can be written on the board or included in the computer presentation.

Instructional Procedures

The sequence of teaching in this lesson spans two lessons. The flow of activity represented here visually illustrated the mix of teacher and student activity.

The flow of activity mixes teacher activity, student activity, and joint activity. Student activity includes a mix of class participation, peer interaction, and individual performance. Note also the mix of lecture and presentation with student activity. Options for this activity might be to rethink the use of thext question for assessment. Perhaps textbook question that supplement “web your appetite” would be more appropriate. These question should address biological energy flow in other examples, so as to assess student understanding of energy flow in organisms. Removal of the text questions would provide more time to the activity and the discussion that follows. In addition, removing the text questions activity directly connects student activity with the class discussion !

Teacher Inquiry Procedures

Developing a habit of journal writing about that happened in class is a valuable activity for any teacher. Record your entries as soon as possible after the lesson is taught. You will forget many details if you wait until the weekend to record what happened in class the previous week. This activity might supplement other forms of data that are  being used to answer one or more research question conducted by formal teacher inquiry. Teaching and learning are heavily influenced by the learning context. Having a record of your teaching, student reaction, and performance, as well as the other details that characterized your teaching for that day, will document a more accurate accounting of what influenced student learning.

Closure Procedures

In the class discussion for lesson closure, the teacher learns to summarize what ahe sees in class in terms of student performance and reaction to the learning activities. Closure can include a teacher’s assessment of what was learned, as well as point out conceptual issues and direct student attention to future assignments of what the text lesson will be about.



Experience with the activity and feedback from student will improve the structure of any activity. It takes time to explain what an activity is about and to provide clear instructions, so this time may need to be estimated and included in the overall plan. Writing instructions on the board may be necessary or, for older student, providing instruction on paper can reinforce oral instructions. When you look at developing a until, a meaningful lesson may help student become acquainted with an activity of a new from of teaching, particularly if the leads to significant student performance, such as discussions or peer projects.


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